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Question No. 12」
The brief passage:
Fifteen years ago, Omega University implemented a new procedure that encouraged students to evaluate the teaching effectiveness of all their professors. Since that time, Omega professors have begun to assign higher grades in their classes, and overall student grade averages at Omega have risen by 30 percent. Potential employers, looking at this dramatic rise in grades, believe that grades at Omega are inflated and do not accurately reflect student achievement; as a result, Omega graduates have not been as successful at getting jobs as have graduates from nearby Alpha University. To enable its graduates to secure better jobs, Omega University should terminate student evaluation of professors.
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.
If students’ academic competence has actually increased during the fifteen years ← evidence, the 30-percent increase in grades truthfully represents their improved capability rather than inflation as is believed by potential employers. elaboration →As a matter of fact, since the 15 years has been a long time, it is likely that there have been multiple generations of students whose scholastic aptitude has improved.This likelihood refutes the author’s suggestion that professors assign higher grades in exchange of students’ better evaluation of their teaching. The author’s suggestion at this point may be rebutted by another possibility that there have been → a number of outstanding students whose academic excellence has increased the university’s overall grades ← evidence. This likely situation also contradicts the inflation of grades alleged by potential employers.
Even though the increased grades may be inflated as believed, the inflated grades may not be the reason why Omega graduates have not been as successful at getting jobs as have graduates from nearby Alpha University. Instead, there may be other reasons. For example, it is likely that those Omega graduates who have not been successful in finding jobs have high expectations of salaries that cannot be met by employers, rendering themselves unemployed← evidence. It is also likely that those Omega graduates do not possess abilities that are desired by potential employers← evidence.
The argument has no information regarding whether Alpha University also has the system of students’ evaluation of professors. If Alpha University has an evaluation system analogous to Omega’s← evidence, that Omega graduates have been less successful in finding employment is not associated with the university’s evaluation system. As a result, the evaluation system may not be terminated.
The argument provides only information that Omega graduates have been less likely to find employment and no information that the jobs that have been found are less good. In fact, Omega graduates may have already found better jobs← evidence, and as a result, the termination of the evaluation system for the purpose of finding better jobs is unjustifiable.
The brief passage的reasoning中还有其它的逻辑漏洞